So here you are, about to jump into a black hole. What could be waiting – against all odds – you somehow survive? Where will you end up and what tantalizing stories will you be able to retell if you manage to go back?
The simple answer to all of these questions, as Professor Richard Massey explains, is, “Who knows?” As a Research Fellow of the Royal Society at the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University, Massey is fully aware that the mysteries of black holes run deep within the earth.
“Falling over an event horizon is literally crossing the curtain – once someone crosses it, no one can resend the message,” he said. “They’ll be ripped to pieces by the sheer force of gravity, so I doubt anyone who falls through will get anywhere.”
If that sounds like a disappointing – and painful – answer, it is to be expected. Since Albert Einstein’s general relativity is considered to have predicted the black hole by linking space-time to the action of Gravitation, it is known that black holes result from the death of a massive star leaving behind a small and dense remnant core. Let’s say this core has about three times more mass of the sun, gravity would be so overwhelming that it would fall on its own into a single point, or singularity, understood as the infinitely dense core of the black hole.
The uninhabitable black hole will have such a strong gravitational pull that even light cannot avoid it. So if you find yourself at the event horizon – the point where light and matter can only pass in, as suggested by German astronomer Karl Schwarzschild – there’s no way out. According to Massey, tidal forces will reduce your body to bands of atoms (aka ‘filament formation’) and the object will eventually be crushed at the singularity. The idea that you might pop up somewhere – perhaps on the other side – seems completely futile.
What about wormholes?
For years, scientists have considered the possibility that black holes could deep hole to other galaxies. They may even be, as some have suggested, a pathway to another universe.
One such idea has been floating around for a while: Einstein collaborated with Nathan Rosen to theorize bridges connecting two different points in space-time in 1935. But it gained some new ground in the 1980s when physicist Kip Thorne – one of the world’s leading expert on the astrophysics implications of Einstein’s theory of general relativity – giving a discussion about whether objects can pass through them.
“Reading Kip Thorne’s famous book about wormholes was what first got me interested in physics as a child,” says Massey. But it seems unlikely that wormholes exist.
Indeed, Thorne, who lent his expert advice to the Hollywood Interstellar production team, wrote: “We see no objects in our universe that could become wormholes as they age. go”, in the book “The Science of the Stars” (WW Norton and Company, 2014). Thorne told Space.com that journeys through these theoretical tunnels are most likely still science fiction, and there is certainly no solid evidence that a black hole could allow such passage.
But, the problem is that we can’t get close enough to see it with our own eyes. Why, we can’t even photograph anything going on inside a black hole – if light can’t escape their great gravity, nothing can be captured with a camera. As it stands, the theory holds that anything beyond the event horizon is simply added to the black hole and more, because the time distortion is close to this boundary, this should happen. extremely slow, so the answer won’t be coming soon.
“I think the standard story is that they lead to the end of time,” said Douglas Finkbeiner, a professor of astronomy and physics at Harvard University. “A distant observer will not see their astronaut friend fall into the black hole. They will get redder and dimmer as they approach the event horizon. [as a result of gravitational red shift]. But the friend falls right in, to a place far beyond ‘forever.’ Whatever that means. “
Can black holes lead to white holes?
Certainly, if the black hole were to lead to another part of the galaxy or to another universe, there would need to be something opposing them on the other side. This could be a white hole – a hypothesis put forward by the Russian cosmologist Igor Novikov in 1964? Novikov proposed that a black hole associated with a white hole existed in the past. Unlike a black hole, a white hole will allow light and matter to leave, but light and matter will not be able to enter.
Scientists have continued to explore the potential connection between black and white holes. In their 2014 study published in the journal EASY physics review, physicists Carlo Rovelli and Hal M. Haggard claim that “there is a classical metric that satisfies Einstein’s equations outside of a finite region of space-time, where matter collapses into a black hole and then that emerges from a hole”. In other words, all swallowed black hole matter can be ejected, and black holes can become white holes when they die.
Without destroying the information it absorbed, the collapse of a black hole would be halted. Instead, it will undergo a quantum bounce, allowing the information to escape. If this is the case, it will shed light on a proposal by the former Cambridge University cosmologist and theoretical physicist. Stephen Hawking In the 1970s, humans discovered the possibility that black holes emit particles and radiation – heat and heat – as a result of quantum oscillations.
“Hawking says that a black hole doesn’t last forever,” Finkbeiner said. Hawking calculated that radiation would cause a black hole to lose energy, shrink, and disappear, as he described in 1976. publication paper in the journal Physical Review D. With his claim that the emitted radiation would be random and contain no information about what had fallen in, the black hole, after its explosion, would erase a wealth of information.
This means that Hawking’s ideas are in contrast to quantum theory, which states that information cannot be destroyed. Physics says that information becomes harder to find because, if it is lost, it becomes impossible to know past or future. Hawking’s idea led to the ‘black hole information paradox’ and it has long puzzled scientists. Some have suggested that Hawking was wrong and the man himself even claimed to have made a mistake during a scientific conference in Dublin in 2004.
So we go back to the concept of a black hole emitting conserved information and throwing it out through a white hole? Probably. In their 2013 study published in Physical assessment letter, Jorge Pullin at Louisiana State University and Rodolfo Gambini at the University of the Republic in Montevideo, Uruguay, applying the loop quantum gravity went to a black hole and found that gravity increased for the core but decreased and picked up anything that was entering another region of the universe. The results lend credence to the idea of black holes acting as portals. In this study, the singularity did not exist, and so it did not form an impenetrable barrier that would destroy anything it encountered. It also means that the information does not disappear.
Maybe the black hole is not going anywhere?
However, physicists Ahmed Almheiri, Donald Marolf, Joseph Polchinski and James Sully still believe that Hawking may have done something. They worked on a theory known as the AMPS firewall, or the black hole firewall hypothesis. With their calculations, quantum mechanics can turn the event horizon into a giant wall of fire and anything that comes in contact will instantly burn up. In that sense, a black hole leads to nowhere because nothing can get inside.
However, this violates Einstein’s general theory of relativity. Someone crossing the event horizon wouldn’t really experience great difficulty because an object would be in free fall and, based on the principle of equivalence, the object – or the person – would feel no impact. extreme force of gravity. It might obey the laws of physics present elsewhere in the universe, but even if it didn’t go against Einstein’s principles, it would undermine quantum field theory or suggest that information can may be lost.
Uncertain Black Hole
Move on Hawking again. In 2014, he published a research in which he avoids the existence of an event horizon – meaning there’s nothing there to burn – instead stating that gravitational collapse would create an ‘apparent horizon’.
This horizon will suspend the rays of light trying to travel away from the core of the black hole, and will persist for a “period of time”. In my thoughts, the apparent horizons temporarily retain matter and energy before dissolving and releasing them later down the stream. This explanation is most consistent with quantum theory – which states that information cannot be destroyed – and if it is ever proven, it shows that anything can escape from a black hole. .
Hawking went as far as to say that black holes might not even exist. “Black holes should be redefined as the metastatic limit states of the gravitational field,” he writes. There would be no singularity, and while the apparent field would move inward due to gravity, it would never reach the center and be merged in a solid mass.
However, whatever is emitted will not be in the form of swallowed information. It would be impossible to understand what happened by looking at what was happening, what was causing its own problems – especially for a human being in such an alarming state. They will never feel the same way again!
One thing is for sure, this particular mystery will devour many more hours of science for a long time to come. Rovelli and Francesca Vidotto recently suggested that a component of dark matter could be formed by the remnants of evaporating black holes, and Hawking’s paper on black holes and ‘soft feathers’ is released in 2018, and describes how non-energetic particles are left around the point of no return, the event horizon – an idea that information is not lost but recorded.
This goes against the hairless theorem expressed by physicist John Archibald Wheeler and works on the basis that two black holes would be indistinguishable to an observer because there is no false charge. Which particular particle physics is conserved. It’s an idea scientists have been buzzing about, but there’s still some work to do before it can be seen as the answer to where black holes lead. If only we could find a way to become one.
You can learn more about black holes with NASA’s In-depth article and discover how The first image of a black hole has been captured. If you’re looking for some kid-friendly content, ESA has some great resource to teach little kids all about black holes and the universe.
https://www.space.com/where-do-black-holes-lead.html Where do black holes lead?